What is ISO 27001:
ISO 27001 is an international standard that outlines a framework for an Information Security Management System (ISMS). The standard provides a systematic approach to implementing information security controls to manage the applicable risks to an organisation. It provides guidance on the implementation of security controls and best practices for protecting information assets, including people, processes, and technology.
The standard covers the management of risks to the security of information that an organisation holds. It includes requirements for risk assessment, the implementation of security controls, and regular reviews to ensure that the ISMS is effective. It also includes guidelines for incident management and business continuity planning. Organisations that adopt the standard are required to have a management system in place to protect against unauthorised access, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction of information.
ISO 27001 certification is the process of demonstrating to an external auditor from a certifying body, that the organisation's ISMS meets the requirements outlined in the standard. Achieving certification requires the completion of an external audit, and ongoing surveillance audits to demonstrate ongoing compliance with the standard. Organisations that are certified can use the standard as a benchmark for their information security management, and it can also be used to demonstrate the company's commitment to information security to clients, stakeholders and regulatory bodies.
What are the changes to ISO 27001:
ISO 27001 was first published in 2005 and then revised on September 25, 2013, as ISO/IEC 27001:2013. The most recent revision was published on October 25, 2022, as ISO/IEC 27001:2022 "Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection — Information security management systems".
It is important to understand the differences between ISO 27001 and ISO 27002. ISO 27001 is the main standard against which organisations are certified, whereas ISO 27002 provides guidance on implementing Annex A security controls.
The ISO 27001 management clauses (4-10) have undergone several minor changes, especially across the following clauses:
- Clause 4.2: Understanding the needs and expectations of interested parties
- Clause 6.2: Information Security objectives and planning to achieve them
- Clause 6.3: Planning of Changes
- Clause 8.1: Operational Planning and control
In terms of structural changes, Clause 9.2: Internal audit has been divided into 9.2.1: General and 9.2.2: Internal audit programme. However, the requirements remain the same.
Similarly, Clause 9.3: Management review has been split into three subsections — 9.3.1: General, 9.3.2: Management review inputs, and 9.3.3: Management review results. A new mandatory item 9.3.2 c) has been added for the management review: “Changes in needs and expectations of interested parties that are relevant to the information security management system;” top management in the organisation will need to ensure that this is covered at the management reviews.
The ISO 27001:2022 version also introduces a new Clause 6.3: Planning for Changes. “When the organisation determines the need for changes to the information security management system, the changes shall be carried out in a planned manner.” To meet this requirement, it is important that changes to the ISMS are planned and evidence retained to show the changes were managed appropriately. Organisations should ensure they have a documented plan that includes activities completed, evidence of management review and communications based on the defined communication plan.
The major change that organisations should be aware of is the update to Annex A controls within the new ISO 27001:2022 standard. ISO 27001:2022 adopts a new structure for the Annex A controls (Information Security Controls), which has been reorganised, updated, and extended. This aligns with ISO/IEC 27002:2022, published in March 2022. ISO/IEC 27002 is to be used as a reference for selecting and implementing controls for risk treatment in an Information Security Management System (ISMS) based on ISO/IEC 27001.
Key Changes to ISO 27002 - Annex A Controls
The major changes to ISO 27002, include restructuring the original 14 control domains into 4 categories. As a result, the total number of controls has decreased from the original 114 to 93. This decrease has come mainly due to merging 57 controls into 24 controls. 58 controls remain mostly unchanged, with minor contextual updates, and 11 controls are brand new (not available in ISO/IEC 27001:2013).
The controls are restructured into 4 clauses:
- A.5 Organisational - contains 37 controls
- A.6 People - contains 8 controls
- A.7 Physical - contains 14 controls
- A.8 Technological - contains 34 controls
The 11 new controls added to Annex A include:
- A.5.7 Threat intelligence
- A.5.23 Information security for the use of cloud services
- A.5.30 ICT readiness for business continuity
- A.7.4 Physical security monitoring
- A.8.9 Configuration management
- A.8.10 Information deletion
- A.8.11 Data masking
- A.8.12 Data leakage prevention
- A.8.16 Monitoring activities
- A.8.23 Web filtering
- A.8.28 Secure coding
Key Transition Points for ISO 27001:2022
Organisations that are currently certified to ISO 27001:2013 will have three years to transition to ISO/IEC 27001:2022. The transition period began on October 31, 2022 and ends on October 31, 2025. Certifications based on ISO 27001:2013 will expire or be withdrawn at the end of the transition period.
Organisations pursuing ISO 27001 for the first time (both Stage 1 and Stage 2 audits) can be certified on the 27001:2013 version until October 2023. Transition audits can either be done at the same time as the organisation’s next audit (e.g., surveillance audit and transition audit), or separately.
All organisations that wish to remain certified to ISO 27001 will have to transition to the 2022 version of the standard within the set transition period which ends on October 31,2025. During the transition period both versions of the ISO 27001 standard remain valid and audits to either version of the standard may be conducted subject to the rules noted below, but plans should be made for an organisation’s transition to fully occur prior to the transition period ending.
- All new certifications starting Nov 1, 2023 should be to the new ISO 27001:2022 version, after this date all recertification audits are recommended to utilise the ISO 27001:2022 version.
- All transition audits should be conducted by July 31, 2025.
- Transition period ends on October 31, 2025, ISO 27001:2013 certificates will no longer be valid after this date.
- Entities that hold an ISO 27001:2013 will have to complete transition within 36 months.
- During transition, existing ISO 27001:2013 certificates will remain valid.
- ISO 27001:2022 certificates will be issued based on the 3-year re-certificate cycle.
- Transition audits to the ISO 27001:2022 are based on any one of the following:
- Surveillance audit.
- Recertification audit.
- Special audit.
- Initial certification does not require a transition audit.
- Transition audits must consider and include:
- Gap analysis against ISO 27001:2002, and any needed changes to the auditee’s ISMS.
- Update of the Statement of Applicability (SoA).
- Update of the risk treatment plan, as applicable.
A detailed report of the transition requirements can be found here.